What are the 4 functions of management?
Management corresponds to all the methods and techniques used to achieve the objectives set by an organization.
There are two types of management, strategic management and operational management.
The purpose of strategic management is to provide general management with the analysis tools likely to improve the performance of managers. This discipline corresponds to decisions having a long and medium term impact. It makes it possible to coordinate and federate the achievements of employees around a common project. Strategic management sets the broad guidelines and objectives of a company over the long term.
Operational management, on the other hand, concerns the day-to-day management of a company. It also aims to improve the performance of the company, and for this, it sets objectives in the short or medium term. It is a management that is interested in the daily management of the activities of a company or an organization.
More generally, management encompasses a set of resource organization techniques. These resources can be financial, human and material.
The hierarchy of management: understanding the levels and their role
Management makes it possible to lead teams and make strategic decisions in order to achieve the objectives set.
In large companies, three levels of management can be distinguished:
- First of all, there is the first level management , it corresponds to the lower management which coordinates the activities of the employees having execution tasks in coordination with the middle management.
- Then, the middle management is located between the general management and the local management of the employees. Middle management therefore makes it possible to make the link between the general management and the employees of a company or organization.
- Finally, top management enables a vision to be put in place within a group that will engage the support functions (marketing, human resources, supply chain, finance, etc.). Top management has a long-term vision, it is the highest level of decision-making and responsibility. Top management is exercised by senior executives and/or decision-makers with the aim of coordinating and transmitting strategic orientations and directives to local managers.
The 4 main functions of management
Management concerns organizations in all sectors of activity and of all sizes. The main objective of management is to improve performance.
Management combines a set of techniques that make it possible to plan , organize , direct and control the various activities of an organization.
- To plan
In the short, medium or long term, planning makes it possible to implement the action plans carried out by top management. This step constitutes the formal decision-making process. Planning makes it possible to control one’s future and to know the means to reach the objectives. Planning involves allocating resources to employees, delegating responsibilities, as well as setting realistic deadlines and standards for achieving this.
This step aims to define and then distribute the tasks to be carried out, in order to effectively achieve the objectives. Organizing is a central function for management since it allows you to act directly on the mobilization of employees, as well as on the performance of your team. For the manager, the organization makes it possible to program the workload of his team and to set up dashboards which will allow him to measure the progress of operations.
- To manage
Leading an organization is all about making decisions. You have to get your team to go in the same direction to achieve the same goals. This function requires a certain experience because leading well is based on exchange, listening and dialogue. The person who frames the role of leader must not only limit himself to a formal authority, he must also guide his team to achieve the objectives set.
This management function is necessary in order to observe whether subordinates have correctly followed the instructions given upstream. Dashboards are essential in order to assess the progress of the project in view of the objectives set. Finally, if necessary, corrective actions must be planned for each activity.
These four functions of management are interdependent, they are used to achieve the objectives of the company and to improve the performance of the company.
Interim management to perform management functions
Interim management consists of calling on a manager specialized in a specific field in order to respond to an internal problem. The interim manager’s mission is to implement changes aimed at improving the performance and competitiveness of a company.
A company may use an interim manager in situations such as:
- Managing a crisis situation
- The replacement of a manager or senior executive
- Support for digital transformation or restructuring
Interim managers have held managerial positions in large groups for a substantial period, which allows them to master the key management functions.
An interim manager is operational as soon as he takes office, moreover, he is fully dedicated to his management mission. The interim manager is much better accepted by the internal teams since he is isolated from the political issues of the company in which he intervenes.